British Battles of the 18th Century – Sea

Battle Year Country Conflict Outcome
Vigo Bay 1701 Spain War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Málaga 1704 Spain War of the Spanish Succession Inconclusive
Cape Passaro 1718 Spain War of the Quadruple Alliance British Victory
Nassau 1720 Bahamas War of the Quadruple Alliance British / French / Dutch Victory
La Guaira 1739 West Indies War of Jenkins’ Ear Spanish Victory
Porto Bello 1739 Panama War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
San Lorenzo el Real Chagres 1740 Panama War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
Cartagena de Indias 1741 Columbia War of Jenkin’s Ear Spanish Victory
Toulon (1744) 1744 France War of the Austrian Succession Inconclusive
Santiago de Cuba (1748) 1748 Cuba War of Jenkin’s Ear Spanish Victory
Havana (1748) 1748 Cuba War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
Minorca (1756) 1756 Spain Seven Year’s War Pro-French Victory
Negapatam (1758) 1756 Tamil Nadu Seven Year’s War Inconclusive
Lagos 1759 Portugal Seven Year’s War Pro-British Victory
Pondicherry 1759 Tamil Nadu Seven Year’s War Inconclusive
Quiberon Bay 1759 France Seven Year’s War Pro-British Victory
Valcour Island 1776 New York American Revolutionary War French Victory
Ushant (1778) 1778 France American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
St. Lucia 1778 West Indies American Revolutionary War British Victory
Grenada 1779 West Indies American Revolutionary War French Victory
Cape St. Vincent (1780) 1780 Portugal American Revolutionary War British Victory
Martinique (1780) 1780 West Indies American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
Porto Praya 1781 Cape Verde American Revolutionary War French Victory
Fort Royal 1781 West Indies American Revolutionary War French Victory
Dogger Bank (1781) 1781 North Sea American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
Chesapeake 1781 Virgina Capes American Revolutionary War French Victory
Ushant (1781) 1781 France American Revolutionary War British Victory
Saint Kitts 1782 West Indies American Revolutionary War British Victory
Sadras 1782 Tamil Nadu American Revolutionary War French Victory
Saintes 1782 West Indies American Revolutionary War British Victory
Providien 1782 Sri Lanka American Revolutionary War French Victory
Negapatam (1782) 1782 Tamil Nadu American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
Trincomalee 1782 Sri Lanka American Revolutionary War French Victory
Cuddalore (1783) 1783 Tamil Nadu American Revolutionary War French Victory
Prairial  (Glorious First of June) 1794 France First Napoleonic War British Victory
Cape St Vincent (1797) 1797 Portugal First Napoleonic War British Victory
Camperduin 1797 Netherlands First Napoleonic War British Victory
Nile (Aboukir Bay) 1798 Egypt First Napoleonic War British Victory

18th Century Naval Battles With British Involvement

 

Copyright ©2018 Savereo John

British Battles of the 18th Century – Land

main-qimg-384aa04d27e67aa71ed7daf31edc30cd-c

The Battle of Palashi (Plassey) 1757 part of the Seven Years War

Battle Year Location Troops Conflict Outcome
Siege of St. Augustine (1702) 1702 Florida 1,000 War of the Spanish Succession Bourbon Victory
Gibraltar 1704 Spain 2,400 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Schellenberg 1704 Bavaria 35,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Blenheim 1704 Bavaria 108,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Siege of St. John’s 1705 Newfoundland 500 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
 Siege of Barcelona 1706 Spain n/k War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Ramillies 1706 Belgium 122,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Alamansa 1707 Spain 41,000 War of the Spanish Succession Bourbon Victory
Oudenarde 1707 Belgium 165,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Wijnendale 1708 Belgium 30,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
St John’s 1709 Newfoundland 500 War of the Spanish Succession Bourbon Victory
Malplaquet 1709 France 160,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Almenar 1710 Spain 46,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Saragossa 1710 Spain 50,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Port Royal 1710 Nova Scotia 1,500 War of the Spanish Succession Bourbon Victory
Brihuega 1710 Spain 14,000 War of the Spanish Succession Bourbon Victory
Villaviciosa 1710 Spain 34,000 War of the Spanish Succession Bourbon Victory
Bloody Creek (1711) 1711 Nova Scotia 200 War of the Spanish Succession Bourbon Victory
Preston 1715 England 4,200 Jacobite Rebellion (1715) Hanoverian Victory
Sheriffmuir 1715 Scotland 18,000 Jacobite Rebellion (1715) Inconclusive
Glen Shiel 1719 Scotland 2,100 Jacobite Rebellion (1719) Hanoverian Victory
Porto Bello 1739 Panama n/k War of Jenkins’ Ear British Victory
St. Augustine (1740) 1740 Florida 3,800 War of Jenkin’s Ear Spanish Victory
Gully Hole Creek 1742 Georgia 600 War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
Bloody Marsh 1742 Georgia 850 War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
La Guaira 1743 Venezuela 3,400 War of Jenkin’s Ear Spanish Victory
Puerto Cabello 1743 Venezuela 6,000 War of Jenkin’s Ear Spanish Victory
Dettingen 1743 Bavaria 58,000 War of the Austrian Succession Allied Victory
Villafranca 1744 Italy 38,000 War of the Austrian Succession French Victory
Siege of Louisbourg (1745) 1745 Nova Scotia 6,500 War of the Austrian Succession Allied Victory
Fontenoy 1745 Belgium 102,000 War of the Austrian Succession French Victory
Prestonpans 1745 Scotland 4,800 Jacobite Rebellion (1745) Jacobite Victory
Falkirk Muir 1746 Scotland 15,000 Jacobite Rebellion (1745) Jacobite Victory
Culloden 1746 Scotland 15,000 Jacobite Rebellion (1745) Hanoverian Victory
Rocoux 1746 Belgium n/k War of the Austrian Succession French Victory
Lauffeld 1747 Netherlands 140,000 War of the Austrian Succession French Victory
Siege of Bergen op Zoom (1747) 1747 Netherlands 40,000 War of the Austrian Succession French Victory
Jumonville Glen 1754 Pennsylvania 100 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Fort Beauséjour 1755 New Brunswick 2,500 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Monongahela Valley 1755 Pennsylvania 2,200 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Fort Bull 1756 New York 400 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Siege of Fort William Henry 1756 New York 10,500 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Fort Oswego (1756) 1756 New York 4,100 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Palashi (Plassey) 1757 Bengal 65,100 Seven Years War East India Company Victory
Hastenbeck 1757 Hanover 95,000 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Bloody Creek (1757) 1757 Nova Scotia 200 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Siege of Louisbourg (1758) 1758 Nova Scotia 25,000 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Carrilion 1758 New York 21,600 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Fort Duquesne 1758 Pennsylvania 1,200 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Fort Ligonier 1758 New York 2,600 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Bergen 1759 Hesse 63,000 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Ticonderoga 1759 New York 11,800 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Fort Niagara 1759 New York 5,700 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Beauport 1759 Quebec 14,000 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Minden 1759 Westphalia 77,000 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Plains of Abraham 1759 Quebec 7,800 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Wandiwash 1760 Tamil Nadu 11,200 Seven Years War East India Company Victory
Sainte-Foy 1760 Quebec 8,800 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Warburg 1760 Westphalia 36,000 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Thousand Islands 1760 Ontario 12,000 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Villinghausen 1761 Westphalia 155,000 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Manilla 1762 Philippines 19,600 Anglo-Spanish War British Victory
Bushy Run 1763 Pennsylvania 1,000 Pontiac’s Rebellion British Victory
Buxar 1764 Bihar 47,000 The Bengal Wars East India Company Victory
Lexington and Concord 1775 Massachusetts 5,500 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Fort Ticonderoga 1775 New York 250 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Bunker Hill 1775 Massachusetts 5,400 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Siege of Fort St. Jean 1775 Quebec 2,500 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Longue-Pointe 1775 Quebec 400 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Great Bridge 1775 Virginia 1,300 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Quebec 1775 Quebec 3,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Moore’s Creek Bridge 1776 North Carolina 1,900 American Revolutionary War American Victory
The Cedars 1776 Quebec 750 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Trois-Rivières 1776 Quebec 3,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Long Island 1776 New York 30,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Harlem Heights 1776 New York 6,800 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Pell’s Point 1776 New York 4,700 American Revolutionary War British Victory
White Plains 1776 New York 8,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Fort Cumberland 1776 New Brunswick 600 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Trenton 1776 New Jersey 4,000 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Assunpink Creek 1777 New Jersey 11,000 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Princeton 1777 New Jersey 5,700 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Bound Brook 1777 New Jersey 4,500 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Fort Ticonderoga (1777) 1777 New York 10,800 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Oriskany 1777 New York 1,300 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Bennington 1777 New York 4,100 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Brandywine 1777 Pennsylvania 21,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
1st Saratoga 1777 New York 16,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
2nd Saratoga 1777 New York 18,000 American Revolutionary War American Vcitory
Germantown 1777 Pennsylvania 20,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Crooked Billet 1778 Pennsylvania 1,200 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Monmouth 1778 New Jersey 25,000 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Alligator Bridge 1778 Florida 1,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Kettle Creek 1779 Georgia 1,000 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Siege of Fort Vincennes 1779 Indiana 400 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Brier Creek 1779 Georgia 2,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Stony Point 1779 New York 2,200 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Paulus Hook 1779 New Jersey 500 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Newtown 1779 New York 1,200 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Fort Bute 1779 Louisiana 1,400 American Revolutionary War Spanish Victory
Baton Rouge (1779) 1779 Louisiana 1,300 American Revolutionary War Spanish Victory
Siege of Savannah 1779 Georgia 8,200 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Fort Charlotte 1780 Alabama 1,600 American Revolutionary War Spanish Victory
Siege of Charleston 1780 South Carolina 19,300 American Revolutionary War British Victory
St. Louis 1780 Missouri 1,300 American Revolutionary War Spanish Victory
Springfield 1780 New Jersey 7,500 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Camden 1780 South Carolina 6,100 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Fishing Creek 1780 South Carolina 1,000 American Revolutionary War British Victory
First Pollilur 1780 Tamil Nadu 8,000 Anglo-Mysore Wars Mysore Victory
Kings Mountain 1780 South Carolina 2,000 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Mobile 1781 Alabama 1,000 American Revolutionary War Spanish Victory
Cowpens 1781 South Carolina 3,000 American Revolutionary War American Victory
Guilford Court House 1781 North Carolina 6,500 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Siege of Pensacola 1781 Florida 19,000 American Revolutionary War Spanish Victory
Hobkirk’s Hill 1781 South Carolina 2,400 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Groton Heights 1781 Connecticut 1,900 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Eutaw Springs 1781 South Carolina 4,200 American Revolutionary War British Victory
Yorktown 1781 Virginia 27,900 American Revolutionary War American / French Victory
Siege of Negapatam 1781 Tamil Nadu 18,000 Anglo-Mysore Wars East India Company Victory
Second Pollilur 1782 Tamil Nadu n/k Anglo-Mysore Wars East India Company Victory
Blue Licks 1782 Kentucky 500 American Revolutionary War Loyalist / Shawnee Victory
Siege of Toulon 1783 France 50,000 First Napoleonic War French Victory
Hondschoote 1783 France 64,000 First Napoleonic War French Victory
Tourcoing 1794 France 144,000 First Napoleonic War French Victory
Fleurus 1794 Belgium 115,000 First Napoleonic War French Victory
Fallen Timbers 1794 Ohio 4,000 Northwest Indian War American Victory
Cape Colony 1795 South Africa 4,400 First Napoleonic War Allied Victory
Ballymore-Eustace 1798 Ireland 550 United Irishmen Rebellion British / Loyalist Victory
Naas 1798 Ireland 1,200 United Irishmen Rebellion British / Loyalist Victory
Kilcullen 1798 Ireland 750 United Irishmen Rebellion United Irish Victory
Carlow 1798 Ireland 1,700 United Irishmen Rebellion British Victory
Tara Hill 1798 Ireland 4,700 United Irishmen Rebellion British Victory
Oulart Hill 1798 Ireland 4,100 United Irishmen Rebellion United Irish Victory
Three Rocks 1798 Ireland 1,600 United Irishmen Rebellion United Irish Victory
Bunclody 1798 Ireland n/k United Irishmen Rebellion British Victory
Toberanierin 1798 Ireland n/k United Irishmen Rebellion United Irish Victory
New Ross 1798 Ireland 12,000 United Irishmen Rebellion British Victory
Antrim 1798 Ireland 4,700 United Irishmen Rebellion British Victory
Arklow 1798 Ireland 11,700 United Irishmen Rebellion British Victory
Prosperous 1798 Ireland 650 United Irishmen Rebellion United Irish Victory
Foulksmills 1798 Ireland 6,000 United Irishmen Rebellion British Victory
Vinegar Hill 1798 Ireland 29,000 United Irishmen Rebellion British Victory
Castlebar 1798 Ireland 8,000 United Irishmen Rebellion United Irish / French Victory
Ballinamuck 1798 Ireland 28,000 United Irishmen Rebellion British Victory
Callantsoog 1799 Netherlands 22,000 First Napoleonic War Allied Victory
Krabbendam 1799 Netherlands 48,000 First Napoleonic War Allied Victory
Bergen (1799) 1799 Netherlands 52,000 First Napoleonic War French Victory
Alkmaar (1799) 1799 Netherlands 65,000 First Napoleonic War French Victory
Castricum 1799 Netherlands 52,000 First Napoleonic War French Victory

Battles of the 18th Century with British Involvement

 

Copyright ©2018 Savereo John

Twenty Biggest Battles of the 18th Century

15th-at-emsdorf

Battle Year Country Troops Conflict Outcome
Oudenarde 1708 Belgium 165,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Panipat 1791 India 160,000 Afghan – Maratha Wars Afghan Victory
Malplaquet 1709 France 160,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Villinghausen 1761 Germany 155,000 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Stavuchany 1737 Ukraine 150,000 Russian-Ottoman Wars Russian Victory
Tourcoing 1794 France 144,000 First Napoleonic War French Victory
Grocka 1739 Serbia 140,000 Ottoman-Hapsburg Wars Ottoman Victory
Lauffeld 1747 Netherlands 140,000 War of the Austrian Succession French Victory
Prague 1757 Czech Republic 127,000 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Ramillies 1706 Belgium 122,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Kagul 1770 Moldavia 115,000 Russian-Ottoman Wars Russian Victory
Fleurus 1794 France 115,000 First Napoleonic War French Victory
Kunersdorf 1759 Germany 112,000 Seven Years War Pro-British Victory
Breslau 1757 Poland 112,000 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Hochkirch 1758 Germany 110,000 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Blenheim 1704 Netherlands 108,000 War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Fontenoy 1745 France 102,000 War of the Austrian Succession French Victory
Hastenbeck 1757 Hanover 95,000 Seven Years War Pro-French Victory
Siege of Maastricht 1748 Netherlands 93,000 War of the Austrian Succession French Victory
Piacenza 1746 Italy 85,000 War of the Austrian Succession Allied Victory

Twenty Biggest Battles of the 18th Century by Combatants

 

Copyright ©2018 Savereo John

Great War Bibliography

Poilus Small

Poilu by Gaston Pierre 1917

The following is a list of books, not exclusive used as sources for the Great War sections of this blog.

Purnell – History of the Twentieth Century, Vol 2 (1969)

Originally published a a magazine serial in the 1960’s and 1970’s. Started them when they first came out and I was 9 years old. My interest in The Great War started then.

Leon van der Essen – The Invasion and the War in Belgium (1917)

Detailed account of the German invasion and occupation of Belgium. At the same time an informative primary source for many mainstream histories yet also a piece of Entente propaganda written while the country was still occupied.

Malcolm Brown – The Imperial War Museum Book of 1914 (2004)

Malcolm Brown – The Imperial War Museum Book of the Somme (1996)

Terrible titles, great books !

Lyn Macdonald – Somme (1983)

The Pity of War – Niall Fergusson (1998)

Brilliant and controversial essays about the Great War, especially its economics

Max Arthur – Last Post (2005)

Eye witness accounts with the last few British survivors

Robert Doughty – Pyrrhic Victory (2005)

French strategy and tactics in The Great War

Alexander Watson – Ring of Steel (2014)

Germany and Austria-Hungary in the Great War

Prior and Wilson – Passchendaele (1996)

Alastair Horne – Verdun : The Price of Glory (1962)

Probably the best english language account of Verdun

Norman Stone – The Eastern Front 1914 – 1917 (1975)

Russia v Germany and Austria Hungary in the Great War

Quintin Barry – The War in the North Sea (2016)

The Royal Navy and The Kaiserlich Marine in the North Sea

Edwyn E Gray – The U-Boat War 1914 – 1918 (1972)

The U-Boat war, told from the point of view of the U-Boat crews

Robert K Massie – Castles of Steel (2003)

The Great War at sea

Savereo John 2017

 

 

 

Great War Statistics – The Cost of the Great War

1918isovereign2obv400

 

£m
Britain 7,852
France 5,392
USA 5,028
Russia 5,021
Italy 2,736
British Empire 999
Other Allies 881
Total 27,909

1 Direct Spending by Entente Governments 1914 – 1918 £m

£m
Germany 8,394
Austria-Hungary 4,583
Bulgaria and Ottomans 499
Total 13,476

2 Direct Spending by Central Powers Governments 1914 – 1918 £m

Pre-1914 Post-1918
Japan 20% 13%
France 13% 18%
Canada 11% 11%
Italy 11% 11%
Britain 9% 27%
Germany 8% 12%
Australia 8% 10%
USA 2% 8%

3 Changes in Personal Taxation between 1914 and 1918

 

Government Spending 41,385
Capitalised Value of Lost Lives 14,912
Loss of Production 10,000
Loss of Property 6,658
Loss of Merchant Ships 1,511
Loss to Neutrals 393
War Relief 1
Total 74,860

 

4 Global Cost of the Great War £m

£m
  From Britain From USA Total
Britain 959 959
France 482 634 1,116
Italy 459 354 813
Russia 631 42 673
Belgium 96 76 172
Serbia 20 6 26
Roumania 7 7
Greece 10 10
Cuba 2 2
Liberia 1 1
British Empire + Others 243 243
Total 1,931 2,091 4,022

5 Cash Advances and Loans made by Britain and USA to other Entente Powers £m

 

£m
USA +278.5
Japan +183.0
Spain +84.0
Argentina +49.0
Netherlands +41.0
Switzerland +12.5
Uruguay +10.0
Sweden +10.0
Denmark +9.0
Canada +9.0
Norway +4.5
Australia +1.0
Greece +0.5
New Zealand 0.0
South Africa -0.5
Finland -0.5
Bulgaria -1.0
Portugal -1.5
Belgium -4.0
Roumania -7.0
Italy -19.0
France -25.0
Britain -42.0
Austria-Hungary -55.0
Germany -123.0

6 Changes in Gold Reserves 1914 – 1918 £m

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

 

 

Great War Statistics – British Investment Overseas

railways

  World In Europe
Britain 44.0% 5.2%
France 19.8% 51.9%
Germany 12.8% 44.0%
USA 7.7% 20.0%

1 World Foreign Investment 1913

World = % all of foreign investment worldwide

In Europe = % of which in Europe

Eg. 44% of all foreign investment in the world originated in Britain, but only 5.3% of that was in Europe. France on the other hand contributed 19.8% of world investment, but 51.9% of it was in Europe

 

$m %
Anglo America 6,347 34.2%
Latin America 3,783 20.4%
Africa 2,262 12.2%
Australia and New Zealand 2,082 11.2%
India 1,894 10.2%
Asia – Other 1,329 7.2%
Europe 876 4.7%
Total 18,573

2 British Overseas Investments 1913 $ – By Geography

 

Sector $m %
Railways 7,605 40.9%
Government 5,535 29.8%
Heavy Industry, Mining, Oil 1,720 9.3%
Banking and Financial 1,587 8.5%
Utilities & Communications 501 2.7%
Transport inc seaborne 434 2.3%
Other Commercial and Industrial 1,192 6.4%
Total 18,573

3 British Overseas Investment 1913 $ – By Sector

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

Great War Statistics – Economic

money

World % GDP $bn Per-Capita $
British 23.5% 561.2 1,258
Chinese 21.8% 241.4 582
Russian 9.3% 264.3 1,498
US 5.6% 522.2 4,917
French 5.2% 170.2 1,414
German 4.1% 258.4 3,227
Japanese 3.9% 92.8 1,251
Hapsburg 2.7% 122.4 1,986
Italian 2.0% 97.7 2,428
Ottoman 1.2% 25.3 1,100
Portuguese 0.8% 13.6 925

1 Global Empires in 1914

Columns –

World % – Percentage of world population

GDP $bn – Gross Domestic Product in $billion

Per-Capita Income – Average income in $

People GDP Per Capita Foreign Trade %GDP
millions $bn $ Imp Exp All Trade
Entente (1st Wave)
Britain 45.65 229.60 5,030 16.1% 13.5% 29.6%
Belgium 7.60 32.40 4,264 4.4% 3.6% 8.0%
France 39.77 129.04 3,245 8.0% 6.8% 14.8%
Russia 170.09 265.09 1,559 2.8% 4.0% 6.8%
Japan 55.10 76.50 1,388 1.8% 1.6% 3.4%
Serbia 3.03 3.20 1,060 (No Data)
Central Powers
Germany 66.98 280.00 4,180 12.7% 12.4% 25.1%
Austria-Hungary 47.51 122.39 2,576 3.4% 2.9% 6.3%
Ottoman Empire 23.00 18.30 1,408 (No Data)
Entente (2nd & 3rd Wave)
USA 97.61 517.38 5,300 9.1% 12.8% 21.9%
Italy 35.42 96.38 2,721 3.5% 2.5% 6.0%

2 Main Combatants Economic Balance (Home Territory Only) 1914

Columns –

People – Population in millions (excludes overseas territories)

GDP – Gross Domestic Product in $billions

Per-Capita – Average income = GDP / Population in $

Foreign Trade %GDP – Total Foreign Trade (Imports + Exports) as percentage of GDP

 

Per Capita Income $   Gross Domestic Product $bn
1 USA 5,300 USA 517.4
2 Britain (UK) 5,030 Germany 280.0
3 Belgium 4,264 Russia 265.1
4 Germany 4,180 China 243.7
5 France 3,496 Britain (UK) 229.6
6 Italy 2,721 Britain (India) 204.0
7 Austria-Hungary 2,576 France 129.0
8 Romania 1,708 Austria-Hungary 122.4
9 Russia 1,558 Italy 96.4
10 Greece 1,454 Japan 76.5
11 Bulgaria 1,450 Belgium 32.4
12 Turkey 1,407 Brazil 25.0
13 Japan 1,388 Turkey 18.3
14 Portugal 1,257 Romania 12.5
15 Brazil 1,232 Portugal 7.5
16 Serbia & Montenegro 1,056 Siam 7.0
17 Siam 833 Bulgaria 6.5
18 Britain (India) 753 Greece 4.0
19 China 552 Serbia & Montenegro 3.2

3 All Combatants Ranked by National Income $ 1914

Column –

GDP – Gross Domestic Product in $billions

Per-Capita – Average income = GDP / Population in $

Coal Steel Iron Ore Industrial Output
m tons m tons m tons % world
USA 517 31 42 36%
Germany 154 19 17 16%
Britain 292 9 10 14%

4 Major Powers – Industrial Capacity

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

 

 

Great War Statistics – Casualties

memorial-ww1

Combatant Deaths % Total % Pop
Germany 2,000,000 24.8% 3.0%
Russia 1,700,000 21.1% 1.0%
France 1,358,000 16.8% 3.4%
Austria-Hungary 1,100,000 13.6% 2.3%
Britain (UK Only) 761,000 9.4% 1.7%
Italy 400,000 5.0% 1.1%
Ottoman Empire 375,000 4.7% 1.6%
Britain (Empire) 252,000 3.1% 0.1%
USA 114,000 1.4% 0.1%
Total 8,060,000

1 Total Military Deaths by 1918

Columns –

Deaths

% Total – Percentage of total military deaths

% Pop – Percentage of pre-war population

At Sea / Air Raids 110,000
Belgium 30,000
Roumania 800,000
Germany 813,000
Austria & Serbia 1,000,000
Russia 2,000,000

2 Total Civilian Deaths by 1918

Napoleonic Wars 1790 – 1815 233
Taiping Rebellion 1851 – 1866 3,632
Crimean War 1854 – 1856 1,075
American Civil War 1861 – 1865 518
Prusso-Danish War 1864 22
Prusso-Austrian War 1866 1,125
Franco-Prussian War 1870 – 1871 876
Boer War 1899 – 1902 10
Russo-Japanese War 1904 – 1905 292
Balkan War 1912 – 1913 1,941
Great War 1914 – 1918 5,509

3 Ten Major Wars – Comparison of Losses per Day

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

Great War Statistics – General Military

Military Balance

Military k Navy k Tons People m % Forces
France 3,700 665 39.8 9.3%
Britain 975 2,158 45.7 2.1%
Russia 5,970 271 170.1 3.5%
Japan 800 520 55.1 1.5%
Belgium 216 0 7.6 0.1%
Serbia 200 0 3.0 6.6%
Entente 1st Wave 11,861 3,614 321.3 3.7%
Germany 4,500 952 67.0 6.7%
Austria-Hungary 3,000 222 47.5 6.3%
Ottoman Empire 600 100 23.0 2.6%
Central Powers 8,100 1,274 137.5 5.9%
Italy 1,251 285 35,420 3.5%
USA 140 774 96,500 0.1%
Entente 2nd / 3rd Wave 1,391 1,059 131,920 1.1%

1 – First Wave Combatants – Military Balance in 1914

Columns –

Military k – Size of armed forces in 1,000’s

Navy k tons – Size of Navy by tonnage

People m – Population in millions (home territory only – excludes overseas possessions)

% Forces – Percentage of the population under arms (= Military / Population)

Battleships  / crusiers Cruisers Destroyers Sub’s k tons
Britain + Dominions 59 107 301 65 2,158
France 25 39 83 55 665
Japan 17 34 50 12 520
Russia 4 10 21 11 271
Entente 105 190 455 143 3,614
Germany 36 54 144 28 952
Austria-Hungary 12 13 25 6 222
Ottoman Empire 2 3 8 0 100
Central Powers 50 70 177 34 1,274
USA 31 25 51 30 774
Italy 12 15 36 19 285
Second / Third Wave 43 40 87 49 1,059

2 – Comparative Naval Strengths 1914

Columns –

Battleships / Cruisers – Battleships and Battlecruisers of all types, including pre-Dreadnaught

Cruisers – Types including Light, Armored and Protected

Destroyers

Submarines

k Tons – Tonnage in 1,000’s

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

 

The Battle of Heligoland Bight (1939)

 

wellington and 109

Vickers Wellington and Messerschmidt 109

Battle of Heligoland Bight (18th Dec 1939)

Allied – 22 Vickers Wellington bombers

Axis – 44 Messerschmitt 109 and 110’s

Result – Axis victory

Losses

Allied – 12 bombers shot down, 3 damaged. 57 dead

Axis – 3 fighters shot down, 10 damaged. 2 dead, 2 wounded

German histories note this raid as the most significant air battle of the war, purely for the effect it had on the strategy of both sides.

By December 1939, the war had been in progress for 3 months and was well into the “phoney war” phase. Although the causus belli (stated reason) for the war was the German invasion of Poland; the French and British had assembled a powerful force, but had left it dug in along the German border, whilst the Germans and Russians crushed Poland unmolested. The raid occurred just 10 days after the battle of the River Plate and the scuttling of Graf Spee.

Bombing at the time was restrained by the need to avoid adverse publicity with neutrals, particularly the USA. Attacks on urban areas were to be avoided. This was respected in the western theatre by both sides at this time – but by nobody in the eastern theatre, where the city of Warszawa was heavily bombed and civilian columns on the roads attacked; up 7,000 Polish civilians were killed by bombing during the siege of the city.

The first British air raids on German territory started as soon as war was declared as did the first U-Boat attacks on British shipping. On 3rd Sep, just a few hours after war was declared, 18 Handley Page Hampdens and 9 Vickers Wellingtons took off from RAF Wyton to attack the battleship SMS Admiral Scheer, moored in the Jade Estuary near Willhelmshaven naval base. The target could not be found due to heavy cloud, and the force returned to base. About the same time as they were landing, submarine U30 spotted and torpedoed the Donaldson Atlantic passenger liner SS Athenia without warning, about 70 miles south of Rockall. The liner was 1 day out of Liverpool, en-route to Montreal and had 1,400 passengers on board; 98 passengers and 19 crew were killed. These were the first British, Canadian and American civilians killed in WW2.

The RAF tried again to attack the Admiral Scheer the following day, when 15 Bristol Blenheims returned and found the battleship. Germany had no integrated radar defence at this time and the Bombers found the ship before they were intercepted. Despite this only one bomb hit the ship, but it failed to explode; no significant damage was done. At the same time 9 Vickers Wellingtons attacked shipping in the Elbe Estuary, further along the coast, but again did no damage. 3 Wellingtons and 5 Blenheims were shot down, the first British military losses of WW2.

Sporadic air attacks on shipping in the North Sea continued until Dec when the RAF decided to mount its largest attack to date. The target was any German shipping in Heligoland Bight between Willhelmshaven and Cuxhaven. 22 twin engine  Wellingtons from RAF Milldenhall deployed, each with a crew of 5. The Wellington was adapted to the pre- radar era – it could attack land or sea targets fast and low and with great accuracy; the main danger was from anti-air craft guns, not enemy fighters.

But as a massed attack bomber, outnumbered 2-1 by high performance fighters vectored in by radar – it was hopeless. The flight flew east and was picked up by the newly installed Freya Radar station on Heligoland Island; The flight initially headed for Kiel, but veered south at the last moment and came in from the northeast. Consequently, radar had tracked them for a full hour before reaching the target. Air Defence Command in Hamburg put 100 fighters in the air, the first wave of 44 intercepting the bombers as they reached the target. Within a short time 12 Wellingtons had been shot down and the rest fled badly shot up. No ships were damaged.

For the RAF, an attrition rate of 50% was unsustainable; this added to the realisation that accurate bombing against a defended and radar-enabled target was difficult if not impossible with the technology they had, led them to abandon daylight bombing altogether. RAF bombing activity was light until the Axis offensive in the west in May 1940, when first tactical, then strategic bombing re-appeared, but with a radically different set of objectives to the first tentative attacks.  Britain (and the USA) both understood the notion of “strategic” bombing – attacks directed far behind the lines at economic and industrial targets as opposed to “tactical” bombing – attacks in support of army or navy operations. Add to this the British view that the morale of the enemy population was a legitimate strategic objective, particularly that of war workers and you arrive at the following –

A separate “air front” – a strategic campaign of psychological warfare (nuisance raids and leaflet drops) and night-time bombing of economic targets conducted by larger bombers, with bigger bomb loads in bigger numbers. Accuracy at night was impossible, only wide areas could be targeted. The intention was not to hit just factories, but worker housing, with the stated intent of destroying housing and killing the inhabitants to bring about a collapse in the productive capacity of the enemy society and economy and to force them to withdraw from the war.  This policy was not put into effect earnestly until after the Blitz, in which 30,000 British civilians had been killed in the space of about 9 months. It should also be noted that the tactic of using electronic vectoring at night and a much higher  proportion of incendiaries in the bomb load were both copied by the RAF from Luftwafe tactics during the Blitz.

The German’s saw bombing very differently. To them the primary role of the bomber was tactical – it was there to support the operations of the other two services. They could conceive of tactical objectives behind the lines – attacks on British ports and aerospace industries during the Blitz being two obvious examples. Where the Luftwafe attacked civilian areas in Britain specifically it was usually “Vergeltungswaffen” (revenge weapons) – either the Baedecker raids against historic town centres or the V-weapons program, ie retaliation for Allied attacks on German cities. It wasn’t that Hitler was opposed to killing civilians – it was just that he didn’t think bombing was the way to do it.

Their biggest mistake however was to overestimate the effectiveness of their integrated defence and to inadequately fund not only fighter defence, but bomber development also. This was to have increasingly dire consequences from 1943 onwards as the Allies, by now re-inforced by the Americans could put 1,000 Lancasters and Wellingtons with electronically vectored Mosquitoes as pathfinders into a nightime raid and 1,000 Flying Fortress bombers plus 800 Mustangs and Thunderbolt fighters into a daytime raid.

The British and the American’s believed that strategic bombing could win a war – the Germans never did. As it turned out, the Allies were wrong. Despite repeated raids, the USAAF was never able to seriously dent, for instance, German aerospace industrial capacity. They simply dispersed most of it and moved the rest underground. German aircraft production actually rose and continued to do so until mid 1944 when the outer areas of the German empire were overrun and supply of raw materials dried up. The British (and later American) area bombing also failed to break the morale of the German population; although 350,000 of them had to die and 40% of urban Germany reduced to charred rubble to prove the point.

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