Great War Statistics – The Cost of the Great War

1918isovereign2obv400

 

£m
Britain 7,852
France 5,392
USA 5,028
Russia 5,021
Italy 2,736
British Empire 999
Other Allies 881
Total 27,909

1 Direct Spending by Entente Governments 1914 – 1918 £m

£m
Germany 8,394
Austria-Hungary 4,583
Bulgaria and Ottomans 499
Total 13,476

2 Direct Spending by Central Powers Governments 1914 – 1918 £m

Pre-1914 Post-1918
Japan 20% 13%
France 13% 18%
Canada 11% 11%
Italy 11% 11%
Britain 9% 27%
Germany 8% 12%
Australia 8% 10%
USA 2% 8%

3 Changes in Personal Taxation between 1914 and 1918

 

Government Spending 41,385
Capitalised Value of Lost Lives 14,912
Loss of Production 10,000
Loss of Property 6,658
Loss of Merchant Ships 1,511
Loss to Neutrals 393
War Relief 1
Total 74,860

 

4 Global Cost of the Great War £m

£m
  From Britain From USA Total
Britain 959 959
France 482 634 1,116
Italy 459 354 813
Russia 631 42 673
Belgium 96 76 172
Serbia 20 6 26
Roumania 7 7
Greece 10 10
Cuba 2 2
Liberia 1 1
British Empire + Others 243 243
Total 1,931 2,091 4,022

5 Cash Advances and Loans made by Britain and USA to other Entente Powers £m

 

£m
USA +278.5
Japan +183.0
Spain +84.0
Argentina +49.0
Netherlands +41.0
Switzerland +12.5
Uruguay +10.0
Sweden +10.0
Denmark +9.0
Canada +9.0
Norway +4.5
Australia +1.0
Greece +0.5
New Zealand 0.0
South Africa -0.5
Finland -0.5
Bulgaria -1.0
Portugal -1.5
Belgium -4.0
Roumania -7.0
Italy -19.0
France -25.0
Britain -42.0
Austria-Hungary -55.0
Germany -123.0

6 Changes in Gold Reserves 1914 – 1918 £m

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

 

 

Great War Statistics – Economic

money

World % GDP $bn Per-Capita $
British 23.5% 561.2 1,258
Chinese 21.8% 241.4 582
Russian 9.3% 264.3 1,498
US 5.6% 522.2 4,917
French 5.2% 170.2 1,414
German 4.1% 258.4 3,227
Japanese 3.9% 92.8 1,251
Hapsburg 2.7% 122.4 1,986
Italian 2.0% 97.7 2,428
Ottoman 1.2% 25.3 1,100
Portuguese 0.8% 13.6 925

1 Global Empires in 1914

Columns –

World % – Percentage of world population

GDP $bn – Gross Domestic Product in $billion

Per-Capita Income – Average income in $

People GDP Per Capita Foreign Trade %GDP
millions $bn $ Imp Exp All Trade
Entente (1st Wave)
Britain 45.65 229.60 5,030 16.1% 13.5% 29.6%
Belgium 7.60 32.40 4,264 4.4% 3.6% 8.0%
France 39.77 129.04 3,245 8.0% 6.8% 14.8%
Russia 170.09 265.09 1,559 2.8% 4.0% 6.8%
Japan 55.10 76.50 1,388 1.8% 1.6% 3.4%
Serbia 3.03 3.20 1,060 (No Data)
Central Powers
Germany 66.98 280.00 4,180 12.7% 12.4% 25.1%
Austria-Hungary 47.51 122.39 2,576 3.4% 2.9% 6.3%
Ottoman Empire 23.00 18.30 1,408 (No Data)
Entente (2nd & 3rd Wave)
USA 97.61 517.38 5,300 9.1% 12.8% 21.9%
Italy 35.42 96.38 2,721 3.5% 2.5% 6.0%

2 Main Combatants Economic Balance (Home Territory Only) 1914

Columns –

People – Population in millions (excludes overseas territories)

GDP – Gross Domestic Product in $billions

Per-Capita – Average income = GDP / Population in $

Foreign Trade %GDP – Total Foreign Trade (Imports + Exports) as percentage of GDP

 

Per Capita Income $   Gross Domestic Product $bn
1 USA 5,300 USA 517.4
2 Britain (UK) 5,030 Germany 280.0
3 Belgium 4,264 Russia 265.1
4 Germany 4,180 China 243.7
5 France 3,496 Britain (UK) 229.6
6 Italy 2,721 Britain (India) 204.0
7 Austria-Hungary 2,576 France 129.0
8 Romania 1,708 Austria-Hungary 122.4
9 Russia 1,558 Italy 96.4
10 Greece 1,454 Japan 76.5
11 Bulgaria 1,450 Belgium 32.4
12 Turkey 1,407 Brazil 25.0
13 Japan 1,388 Turkey 18.3
14 Portugal 1,257 Romania 12.5
15 Brazil 1,232 Portugal 7.5
16 Serbia & Montenegro 1,056 Siam 7.0
17 Siam 833 Bulgaria 6.5
18 Britain (India) 753 Greece 4.0
19 China 552 Serbia & Montenegro 3.2

3 All Combatants Ranked by National Income $ 1914

Column –

GDP – Gross Domestic Product in $billions

Per-Capita – Average income = GDP / Population in $

Coal Steel Iron Ore Industrial Output
m tons m tons m tons % world
USA 517 31 42 36%
Germany 154 19 17 16%
Britain 292 9 10 14%

4 Major Powers – Industrial Capacity

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

 

 

Great War Statistics – Casualties

memorial-ww1

Combatant Deaths % Total % Pop
Germany 2,000,000 24.8% 3.0%
Russia 1,700,000 21.1% 1.0%
France 1,358,000 16.8% 3.4%
Austria-Hungary 1,100,000 13.6% 2.3%
Britain (UK Only) 761,000 9.4% 1.7%
Italy 400,000 5.0% 1.1%
Ottoman Empire 375,000 4.7% 1.6%
Britain (Empire) 252,000 3.1% 0.1%
USA 114,000 1.4% 0.1%
Total 8,060,000

1 Total Military Deaths by 1918

Columns –

Deaths

% Total – Percentage of total military deaths

% Pop – Percentage of pre-war population

At Sea / Air Raids 110,000
Belgium 30,000
Roumania 800,000
Germany 813,000
Austria & Serbia 1,000,000
Russia 2,000,000

2 Total Civilian Deaths by 1918

Napoleonic Wars 1790 – 1815 233
Taiping Rebellion 1851 – 1866 3,632
Crimean War 1854 – 1856 1,075
American Civil War 1861 – 1865 518
Prusso-Danish War 1864 22
Prusso-Austrian War 1866 1,125
Franco-Prussian War 1870 – 1871 876
Boer War 1899 – 1902 10
Russo-Japanese War 1904 – 1905 292
Balkan War 1912 – 1913 1,941
Great War 1914 – 1918 5,509

3 Ten Major Wars – Comparison of Losses per Day

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

Great War Statistics – General Military

Military Balance

Military k Navy k Tons People m % Forces
France 3,700 665 39.8 9.3%
Britain 975 2,158 45.7 2.1%
Russia 5,970 271 170.1 3.5%
Japan 800 520 55.1 1.5%
Belgium 216 0 7.6 0.1%
Serbia 200 0 3.0 6.6%
Entente 1st Wave 11,861 3,614 321.3 3.7%
Germany 4,500 952 67.0 6.7%
Austria-Hungary 3,000 222 47.5 6.3%
Ottoman Empire 600 100 23.0 2.6%
Central Powers 8,100 1,274 137.5 5.9%
Italy 1,251 285 35,420 3.5%
USA 140 774 96,500 0.1%
Entente 2nd / 3rd Wave 1,391 1,059 131,920 1.1%

1 – First Wave Combatants – Military Balance in 1914

Columns –

Military k – Size of armed forces in 1,000’s

Navy k tons – Size of Navy by tonnage

People m – Population in millions (home territory only – excludes overseas possessions)

% Forces – Percentage of the population under arms (= Military / Population)

Battleships  / crusiers Cruisers Destroyers Sub’s k tons
Britain + Dominions 59 107 301 65 2,158
France 25 39 83 55 665
Japan 17 34 50 12 520
Russia 4 10 21 11 271
Entente 105 190 455 143 3,614
Germany 36 54 144 28 952
Austria-Hungary 12 13 25 6 222
Ottoman Empire 2 3 8 0 100
Central Powers 50 70 177 34 1,274
USA 31 25 51 30 774
Italy 12 15 36 19 285
Second / Third Wave 43 40 87 49 1,059

2 – Comparative Naval Strengths 1914

Columns –

Battleships / Cruisers – Battleships and Battlecruisers of all types, including pre-Dreadnaught

Cruisers – Types including Light, Armored and Protected

Destroyers

Submarines

k Tons – Tonnage in 1,000’s

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

 

Great War Statistics – Economic and Military

Military Balance – Population, Size of Military, Size of Navy

Casualties – Military and Civilian

The Economic Balance of the Combatants in 1914 – GDP, Per-Capita Income, Foreign Trade, Industrial Capacity

The Cost of the Great War – Government Spending, Loss of Production, Subsidies from Britain and USA to other Entente Powers

Britain the World’s Banker in 1913 – British Investments Overseas in 1913

Sources for statistics

 

Savereo John 2017