British Battles of the 18th Century – Sea

Battle Year Country Conflict Outcome
Vigo Bay 1701 Spain War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Málaga 1704 Spain War of the Spanish Succession Inconclusive
Cape Passaro 1718 Spain War of the Quadruple Alliance British Victory
Nassau 1720 Bahamas War of the Quadruple Alliance British / French / Dutch Victory
La Guaira 1739 West Indies War of Jenkins’ Ear Spanish Victory
Porto Bello 1739 Panama War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
San Lorenzo el Real Chagres 1740 Panama War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
Cartagena de Indias 1741 Columbia War of Jenkin’s Ear Spanish Victory
Toulon (1744) 1744 France War of the Austrian Succession Inconclusive
Santiago de Cuba (1748) 1748 Cuba War of Jenkin’s Ear Spanish Victory
Havana (1748) 1748 Cuba War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
Minorca (1756) 1756 Spain Seven Year’s War Pro-French Victory
Negapatam (1758) 1756 Tamil Nadu Seven Year’s War Inconclusive
Lagos 1759 Portugal Seven Year’s War Pro-British Victory
Pondicherry 1759 Tamil Nadu Seven Year’s War Inconclusive
Quiberon Bay 1759 France Seven Year’s War Pro-British Victory
Valcour Island 1776 New York American Revolutionary War French Victory
Ushant (1778) 1778 France American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
St. Lucia 1778 West Indies American Revolutionary War British Victory
Grenada 1779 West Indies American Revolutionary War French Victory
Cape St. Vincent (1780) 1780 Portugal American Revolutionary War British Victory
Martinique (1780) 1780 West Indies American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
Porto Praya 1781 Cape Verde American Revolutionary War French Victory
Fort Royal 1781 West Indies American Revolutionary War French Victory
Dogger Bank (1781) 1781 North Sea American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
Chesapeake 1781 Virgina Capes American Revolutionary War French Victory
Ushant (1781) 1781 France American Revolutionary War British Victory
Saint Kitts 1782 West Indies American Revolutionary War British Victory
Sadras 1782 Tamil Nadu American Revolutionary War French Victory
Saintes 1782 West Indies American Revolutionary War British Victory
Providien 1782 Sri Lanka American Revolutionary War French Victory
Negapatam (1782) 1782 Tamil Nadu American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
Trincomalee 1782 Sri Lanka American Revolutionary War French Victory
Cuddalore (1783) 1783 Tamil Nadu American Revolutionary War French Victory
Prairial  (Glorious First of June) 1794 France First Napoleonic War British Victory
Cape St Vincent (1797) 1797 Portugal First Napoleonic War British Victory
Camperduin 1797 Netherlands First Napoleonic War British Victory
Nile (Aboukir Bay) 1798 Egypt First Napoleonic War British Victory

18th Century Naval Battles With British Involvement

 

Copyright ©2018 Savereo John

Great War Statistics – Casualties

memorial-ww1

Combatant Deaths % Total % Pop
Germany 2,000,000 24.8% 3.0%
Russia 1,700,000 21.1% 1.0%
France 1,358,000 16.8% 3.4%
Austria-Hungary 1,100,000 13.6% 2.3%
Britain (UK Only) 761,000 9.4% 1.7%
Italy 400,000 5.0% 1.1%
Ottoman Empire 375,000 4.7% 1.6%
Britain (Empire) 252,000 3.1% 0.1%
USA 114,000 1.4% 0.1%
Total 8,060,000

1 Total Military Deaths by 1918

Columns –

Deaths

% Total – Percentage of total military deaths

% Pop – Percentage of pre-war population

At Sea / Air Raids 110,000
Belgium 30,000
Roumania 800,000
Germany 813,000
Austria & Serbia 1,000,000
Russia 2,000,000

2 Total Civilian Deaths by 1918

Napoleonic Wars 1790 – 1815 233
Taiping Rebellion 1851 – 1866 3,632
Crimean War 1854 – 1856 1,075
American Civil War 1861 – 1865 518
Prusso-Danish War 1864 22
Prusso-Austrian War 1866 1,125
Franco-Prussian War 1870 – 1871 876
Boer War 1899 – 1902 10
Russo-Japanese War 1904 – 1905 292
Balkan War 1912 – 1913 1,941
Great War 1914 – 1918 5,509

3 Ten Major Wars – Comparison of Losses per Day

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

Great War Statistics – General Military

Military Balance

Military k Navy k Tons People m % Forces
France 3,700 665 39.8 9.3%
Britain 975 2,158 45.7 2.1%
Russia 5,970 271 170.1 3.5%
Japan 800 520 55.1 1.5%
Belgium 216 0 7.6 0.1%
Serbia 200 0 3.0 6.6%
Entente 1st Wave 11,861 3,614 321.3 3.7%
Germany 4,500 952 67.0 6.7%
Austria-Hungary 3,000 222 47.5 6.3%
Ottoman Empire 600 100 23.0 2.6%
Central Powers 8,100 1,274 137.5 5.9%
Italy 1,251 285 35,420 3.5%
USA 140 774 96,500 0.1%
Entente 2nd / 3rd Wave 1,391 1,059 131,920 1.1%

1 – First Wave Combatants – Military Balance in 1914

Columns –

Military k – Size of armed forces in 1,000’s

Navy k tons – Size of Navy by tonnage

People m – Population in millions (home territory only – excludes overseas possessions)

% Forces – Percentage of the population under arms (= Military / Population)

Battleships  / crusiers Cruisers Destroyers Sub’s k tons
Britain + Dominions 59 107 301 65 2,158
France 25 39 83 55 665
Japan 17 34 50 12 520
Russia 4 10 21 11 271
Entente 105 190 455 143 3,614
Germany 36 54 144 28 952
Austria-Hungary 12 13 25 6 222
Ottoman Empire 2 3 8 0 100
Central Powers 50 70 177 34 1,274
USA 31 25 51 30 774
Italy 12 15 36 19 285
Second / Third Wave 43 40 87 49 1,059

2 – Comparative Naval Strengths 1914

Columns –

Battleships / Cruisers – Battleships and Battlecruisers of all types, including pre-Dreadnaught

Cruisers – Types including Light, Armored and Protected

Destroyers

Submarines

k Tons – Tonnage in 1,000’s

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

 

The Battle of Heligoland Bight (1939)

 

wellington and 109

Vickers Wellington and Messerschmidt 109

Battle of Heligoland Bight (18th Dec 1939)

Allied – 22 Vickers Wellington bombers

Axis – 44 Messerschmitt 109 and 110’s

Result – Axis victory

Losses

Allied – 12 bombers shot down, 3 damaged. 57 dead

Axis – 3 fighters shot down, 10 damaged. 2 dead, 2 wounded

German histories note this raid as the most significant air battle of the war, purely for the effect it had on the strategy of both sides.

By December 1939, the war had been in progress for 3 months and was well into the “phoney war” phase. Although the causus belli (stated reason) for the war was the German invasion of Poland; the French and British had assembled a powerful force, but had left it dug in along the German border, whilst the Germans and Russians crushed Poland unmolested. The raid occurred just 10 days after the battle of the River Plate and the scuttling of Graf Spee.

Bombing at the time was restrained by the need to avoid adverse publicity with neutrals, particularly the USA. Attacks on urban areas were to be avoided. This was respected in the western theatre by both sides at this time – but by nobody in the eastern theatre, where the city of Warszawa was heavily bombed and civilian columns on the roads attacked; up 7,000 Polish civilians were killed by bombing during the siege of the city.

The first British air raids on German territory started as soon as war was declared as did the first U-Boat attacks on British shipping. On 3rd Sep, just a few hours after war was declared, 18 Handley Page Hampdens and 9 Vickers Wellingtons took off from RAF Wyton to attack the battleship SMS Admiral Scheer, moored in the Jade Estuary near Willhelmshaven naval base. The target could not be found due to heavy cloud, and the force returned to base. About the same time as they were landing, submarine U30 spotted and torpedoed the Donaldson Atlantic passenger liner SS Athenia without warning, about 70 miles south of Rockall. The liner was 1 day out of Liverpool, en-route to Montreal and had 1,400 passengers on board; 98 passengers and 19 crew were killed. These were the first British, Canadian and American civilians killed in WW2.

The RAF tried again to attack the Admiral Scheer the following day, when 15 Bristol Blenheims returned and found the battleship. Germany had no integrated radar defence at this time and the Bombers found the ship before they were intercepted. Despite this only one bomb hit the ship, but it failed to explode; no significant damage was done. At the same time 9 Vickers Wellingtons attacked shipping in the Elbe Estuary, further along the coast, but again did no damage. 3 Wellingtons and 5 Blenheims were shot down, the first British military losses of WW2.

Sporadic air attacks on shipping in the North Sea continued until Dec when the RAF decided to mount its largest attack to date. The target was any German shipping in Heligoland Bight between Willhelmshaven and Cuxhaven. 22 twin engine  Wellingtons from RAF Milldenhall deployed, each with a crew of 5. The Wellington was adapted to the pre- radar era – it could attack land or sea targets fast and low and with great accuracy; the main danger was from anti-air craft guns, not enemy fighters.

But as a massed attack bomber, outnumbered 2-1 by high performance fighters vectored in by radar – it was hopeless. The flight flew east and was picked up by the newly installed Freya Radar station on Heligoland Island; The flight initially headed for Kiel, but veered south at the last moment and came in from the northeast. Consequently, radar had tracked them for a full hour before reaching the target. Air Defence Command in Hamburg put 100 fighters in the air, the first wave of 44 intercepting the bombers as they reached the target. Within a short time 12 Wellingtons had been shot down and the rest fled badly shot up. No ships were damaged.

For the RAF, an attrition rate of 50% was unsustainable; this added to the realisation that accurate bombing against a defended and radar-enabled target was difficult if not impossible with the technology they had, led them to abandon daylight bombing altogether. RAF bombing activity was light until the Axis offensive in the west in May 1940, when first tactical, then strategic bombing re-appeared, but with a radically different set of objectives to the first tentative attacks.  Britain (and the USA) both understood the notion of “strategic” bombing – attacks directed far behind the lines at economic and industrial targets as opposed to “tactical” bombing – attacks in support of army or navy operations. Add to this the British view that the morale of the enemy population was a legitimate strategic objective, particularly that of war workers and you arrive at the following –

A separate “air front” – a strategic campaign of psychological warfare (nuisance raids and leaflet drops) and night-time bombing of economic targets conducted by larger bombers, with bigger bomb loads in bigger numbers. Accuracy at night was impossible, only wide areas could be targeted. The intention was not to hit just factories, but worker housing, with the stated intent of destroying housing and killing the inhabitants to bring about a collapse in the productive capacity of the enemy society and economy and to force them to withdraw from the war.  This policy was not put into effect earnestly until after the Blitz, in which 30,000 British civilians had been killed in the space of about 9 months. It should also be noted that the tactic of using electronic vectoring at night and a much higher  proportion of incendiaries in the bomb load were both copied by the RAF from Luftwafe tactics during the Blitz.

The German’s saw bombing very differently. To them the primary role of the bomber was tactical – it was there to support the operations of the other two services. They could conceive of tactical objectives behind the lines – attacks on British ports and aerospace industries during the Blitz being two obvious examples. Where the Luftwafe attacked civilian areas in Britain specifically it was usually “Vergeltungswaffen” (revenge weapons) – either the Baedecker raids against historic town centres or the V-weapons program, ie retaliation for Allied attacks on German cities. It wasn’t that Hitler was opposed to killing civilians – it was just that he didn’t think bombing was the way to do it.

Their biggest mistake however was to overestimate the effectiveness of their integrated defence and to inadequately fund not only fighter defence, but bomber development also. This was to have increasingly dire consequences from 1943 onwards as the Allies, by now re-inforced by the Americans could put 1,000 Lancasters and Wellingtons with electronically vectored Mosquitoes as pathfinders into a nightime raid and 1,000 Flying Fortress bombers plus 800 Mustangs and Thunderbolt fighters into a daytime raid.

The British and the American’s believed that strategic bombing could win a war – the Germans never did. As it turned out, the Allies were wrong. Despite repeated raids, the USAAF was never able to seriously dent, for instance, German aerospace industrial capacity. They simply dispersed most of it and moved the rest underground. German aircraft production actually rose and continued to do so until mid 1944 when the outer areas of the German empire were overrun and supply of raw materials dried up. The British (and later American) area bombing also failed to break the morale of the German population; although 350,000 of them had to die and 40% of urban Germany reduced to charred rubble to prove the point.

Copyright ©2017 Savereo John

 

American Civil War Battles – By Outcome

Civil War Battles by Outcome

1. All Years

Result No %
US Victory 181 50%
CS Victory 123 34%
Draw 60 16%
Total 364

2. By Year

1861 US Victory 14 46.67%
CS Victory 12 40.00%
Draw 4 13.33%
Year Total 30
1862 US Victory 39 45.88%
CS Victory 33 38.82%
Draw 13 15.29%
Year Total 85
1863 US Victory 49 52.69%
CS Victory 25 26.88%
Draw 19 20.43%
Year Total 93
1864 US Victory 58 46.03%
CS Victory 49 38.89%
Draw 19 15.08%
Year Total 126
1865 US Victory 21 70.00%
CS Victory 4 13.33%
Draw 5 16.67%
Year Total 30

Copyright ©2012 Savereo John

American Civil War Generals – Battles Commanded

Confederate Union
Robert Edward Lee 30 Ulysses Hiram Grant 18
Nathan Bedford Forrest 13 William Tecumsah Sherman 14
Joseph Eggleston Johnston 13 George Brinton McClellan 12
John Sappington Marmaduke 12 Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 11
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard 12 Philip Henry Sheridan 10
Thomas Jonathan Jackson 12 Benjamin Franklin Butler 9
Jubal Anderson Early 11 Hugh Judson Kilpatrick 8
Sterling Price 11 James Gillpatrick Blunt 7
James Longstreet 10 Gouverneur Kemble Warren 6
James Ewell Brown Stuart 10 William Starke Rosecrans 6
John Bell Hood 9 Ambrose Burnside 6
Braxton Bragg 8 Alfred Pleasonton 5
Fitzhugh Lee 7 James Harrison Wilson 5
Richard Taylor 7 John Gray Foster 5
John Hunt Morgan 6 Quincy Adams Gillmore 5
Joseph Wheeler 5 William Woods Averell 5
Ambrose Powell Hill 5 Samuel Davis Sturgis 4
Richard Stoddert Ewell 5 George Gordon Meade 4
Wade Hampton III 5 Joseph Hooker 4
John Bankhead Magruder 5 George R Crook 4
Earl Van Dorn 5 Winfield Scott Hancock 4
Richard Heron Anderson 5 George Henry Thomas 4
Thomas Carmichael Hindman 4 John McAllister Schofield 4
John Cabell Breckinridge 4 William Buel Franklin 3
Daniel Harvey Hill 3 Irwin McDowell 3
William Edmondson Jones 3 David McMutrie Gregg 3
Nathan George Evans 3 John Gubb Parke 3
Douglas Cooper 3 John McNeil 3
John Clifford Pemberton 3 Edward Canby 3
John Buchanan Floyd 3 Andrew A Humphreys 3
Thomas Green 3 John Pope 3
John Bowen 3 Samuel Ryan Curtis 3
Humphrey Marshall 2 Frederick Steele 3
William Martin 2 Alfred Howe Terry 3
Thomas Rosser 2 Franz Sigel 2
Franklin Buchanan 2 James Scott Negley 2
Lawrence Branch 2 John Wilder 2
Henry Heth 2 George Armstrong Custer 2
Joseph Orville Shelby 2 George Stoneman 2
Johnson Hagood 2 Joseph Mower 2
John McCausland 2 Joseph Jones Reynolds 2
George Pickett 2 Francis Blair 2
Edmund Kirby-Smith 2 David Hunter 2
Robert Hoke 2 John Sedgwick 2
John Brown Gordon 2 Andrew Smith 2
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne 2 William Renshaw 2
Felix Zollicoffer 2 William Nelson 2
James Fagan 1 William French 2
Henry McCulloch 1 Alexander McDowell McCook 2
Albert Sidney Johnson 1 Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert 2
James McCulloch 1 David Glasgow Farragut 2
Henry Sibley 1 Stephen Burbridge 2
Henry Wise 1 Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss 2
James Major 1 Samuel Francis DuPont 2
Howard Cobb 1 David Bell Birney 2
James Holtzclaw 1 Godfrey Weitzel 2
James Carter 1 John James Peck 2
James Chambers 1 James Williams 2
James Cooke 1 Henry Halleck 1
Alfred Jackson 1 George Taylor 1
Alexander Stewart 1 Hiram Anderson 1
Edmund Smith 1 Hermann Leib 1
Caleb Dorsey 1 Henry Wessells 1
Cadmus Wilcox 1 Francis Marion Drake 1
Carter Stevenson 1 Frederick Crocker 1
Charles Colcock 1 Henry Slocum 1
Charles Hopkins 1 Harvey Brown 1
Bushrod Rust Johnson 1 Gordon Granger 1
Charles Pyron 1 Graham Fitch 1
Chester Clarke 1 Frederick Saloman 1
Colton Greene 1 Henry Benham 1
David Atchison 1 Francis Osborne 1
George Singletary 1 Albert Stickney 1
Beverley Robertson 1 Charles Walcutt 1
Alfred Moulton 1 Charles Thompson 1
Ambrose Wright 1 Charles Stone 1
Franklin Gardner 1 Charles Hovey 1
George A Anderson 1 Cadwallader Washburn 1
George Alexander Porterfield 1 Benjamin Kelly 1
George Crittenden 1 Edward Hobson 1
Frank Powers 1 Albin Schoef 1
Gideon Pillow 1 Christopher Augur 1
Gov Clairborne Jackson 1 Albert Hall 1
Gustavus Smith 1 Adolph Englemann 1
Hamilton Bee 1 Absalom Moore 1
Henry Jackson 1 Abner Harding 1
Ebeneezer Farrand 1 Abel Streight 1
Thomas Churchill 1 A Semmes 1
John McCown 1 Alfred Ellet 1
Randall Gibson 1 Edward Hatch 1
Reuben Walker 1 Erastus Tyler 1
Robert Garnett 1 Emory Foster 1
Sam Jones 1 Emil Adams 1
Samuel Barron 1 Egbert Brown 1
Samuel French 1 Edwin Vose Sumner 1
Simon Buckner 1 Edward Wild 1
St John Riddell 1 Charles Willette 1
Stand Waite 1 Hiram Barstow 1
Stephen Lee 1 Charles Zagonyi 1
Moses White 1 James Steedman 1
Theophilus Holmes 1 Edward Bloodgood 1
Milliedge Luke Bonham 1 Don Carlos Buell 1
Thomas Clingham 1 Dixon Miles 1
Thomas Munford 1 David Porter 1
Tom Green 1 David Dixon Porter 1
Vard Cockrell 1 Fitz John Porter 1
William Byrd 1 Edward Ord 1
William Cabell 1 Peter Osterhaus 1
William Clarke Quantrill 1 Samuel Merrill 1
William Hardee 1 Robert Patterson 1
William Jackson 1 Robert Milroy 1
William Parsons 1 Robert McIlroy 1
William Pendleton 1 Robert Granger 1
William Talliaferro 1 Robert Anderson 1
Stephen Ramsuer 1 Lionel Booth 1
Joseph Porter 1 Philip Kearny 1
John Burbridge 1 Stephen Hicks 1
John Echols 1 P Drayton 1
John Ford 1 Oliver Howard 1
John Gregg 1 Nelson Miles 1
John Hughes 1 Nathaniel Lyon 1
Albert Jenkins 1 Nathan Kimball 1
John Poindexter 1 Melancton Smith 1
William Wofford 1 James Shackleford 1
John Williams 1 Powell Clayton 1
Johnson Kelly Duncan 1 Thomas Williams 1
Joseph Cook 1 William Vandever 1
Moses Wright Hannon 1 William Smith 1
Joseph Fry 1 William Ord 1
Jeff Thompson 1 William Hazen 1
Julian Frazer 1 William F Smith 1
Lafayette McLaws 1 William Cloud 1
Leonidas Polk 1 Wesley Merritt 1
Lloyd Tilghman 1 Samuel Starr 1
Louis Hebert 1 Truman Seymour 1
Lt Col John Jumper 1 Silas Stringham 1
Lt Richard Dowling 1 Thomas Smith 1
Maj George Anderson 1 Thomas Ewing 1
Maj J Irvine 1 Thomas Devin 1
Maj John Wescott 1 Thomas Crittenden 1
Matthew Butler 1 Thomas Armstrong Morris 1
Micah Jenkins 1 Theodore Barrett 1
Joseph Finegan 1 Lewis Jordon 1
W Torrance 1
James Pond 1
John Brannan 1
John Alexander McClernand 1
Jesse Reno 1
Jeremish Sullivan 1
Jamse Blunt 1
James Shields 1
Lovell Rousseau 1
James Ricketts 1
John Coburn 1
James Mulligan 1
James Lane 1
James Garfield 1
James Buel 1
James Birdseye McPherson 1
Jacob Cox 1
Issac Black 1
A Rhind 1
John Kenley 1
Lew Wallace 1
Joseph Plummer 1
Joseph Leake 1
Joseph Bullen 1
John Slough 1
John Scott 1
John Rogers 1
John Bullock 1
John Marston 1
John Caldwell 1
John Hatch 1
John Gibbon 1
John Fremont 1
John Fitz Porter 1
John Davidson 1
John Corse 1
Horatio Wright 1
John Newton 1

Savereo John History now has a new home

Savereo John History now has a new home – you will find here mostly military history from the 19th and 20th centuries plus new stuff as I add it. Happy reading !

Savereo John