The War of the Spanish Succession

unnamed

The Battle of Vigo Bay in 1701

War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 1714)
This major conflict raged for 13 years at the beginning of the century and contained two of the three largest battles fought anywhere in the world in the 18th Century – Oudenarde in 1708 and Malpauquet in 1709, both of which had about 160,000 combatants.

Great Britain was a major player, Winston Churchill’s ancestor, the Duke of Marlborough, commanded the Allied armies at both Oudenarde and Malpauquet and many British troops took part. The Act of Union in 1707 occurred during the war and at the outset England and Scotland were listed as separate combatants. It was mostly fought in western Europe but had a North American theatre with small detachments of British and French regular troops with colonial militia and Native American allies; Iroquois in the case of the British and Wakaniki in the French case. This was a small-scale war in the wildernesses for control of key towns and forts, known also as Queen Anne’s war.
Conflict arose when Charles II, the last Hapsburg King of Spain died childless in 1700, having left his throne to his grandnephew Philip, Duc d’Anjou, the second eldest grandson of King Louis XIV of France. Other great powers were alarmed by the extension of French power into Spain and formed a Grand Alliance to press the claim of a Hapsburg candidate – Austrian Archduke Charles.

Spain divided along tribal lines, with Castille, including Madrid, supporting the Bourbon Anjou and Aragon (Catalonia) supporting the Hapsburg Charles. Two opposing alliances formed – France, Bavaria, Naples, Sicily and Mantua supported the Bourbon candidate whilst Austria, Britain, Dutch Republic, Prussia, Portugal, Savoy and Hanover supported the Hapsburg claimant, known as the Grand Alliance.

At the battle of Vigo Bay in 1701, a British / Dutch fleet captured a Spanish treasure convoy of 3 ships intact and captured or destroyed its entire French escort fleet of 15 ships of the line; in 1704 2,000 British and Dutch troops attacked and captured Gibraltar.
The Alliance was successful in defeating the Bourbons in continental Europe at the battles of Blenheim, Oudenarde, Malpauquet and Ramillies, albeit at a heavy cost, and overrunning the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) before staging an invasion of Spain in 1710. The Hapsburg allies however began to falter; the Tories came to power in Britain in the same year with policy of ending the war. Britain ceased military operations in 1712, but the other allies fought on hoping for a greater share of the spoils to offset the huge cost of the war – the main reason that Britain withdrew. The Hapsburg invasion of Spain was defeated at the battle of Villaviciosa in 1710 and Philip confirmed as King. The treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714) allowed Philip to keep Spain and South America, but he lost most of his European territories to Austria and ceded Gibraltar to Britain.

 

Copyright ©2018 Savereo John

The War of Jenkin’s Ear

M-Jenkins-Ear-4

The Battle of Cartagena de Indias (1741)

War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739 – 1748)

Fought between Britain and Spain, this small-scale war took place mostly in and around the Caribbean; its latter stages became subsumed into the War of the Austrian Succession. It is regarded as a Spanish victory. The bizarre name was not used at the time but was invented in Victorian times by Thomas Carlyle; a better name for it is the Spanish version – La Guerra del Asiento (”The Asiento War”). An Asiento was licence to trade in Spanish territories in South America, but those colonies were a closed market, except for one thing – slaves. Essentially it was a licence to sell slaves to the Spanish.

Robert Jenkins of Llanelli was a master mariner whose ship was detained by a Spanish privateer La Guardia in 1731 and accused of smuggling. It is alleged that the Spanish captain Juan de León Fandiño sliced off Jenkin’s ear with a cutlass and bade him show it to King George as an example of how to deal with smugglers. Although reported at the time it attracted little attention until 7 years later it was brought up as a pretext for conflict with Spain by South Sea company interests.

The British South Sea Company was a joint-stock corporation holding a monopoly on South American trade; the British Government was a major shareholder and had established it to pay off public debt. Included in its charter was an Asiento – a licence from the Spanish government to sell African slaves in its territories. Escalating tensions between Britain and Spain led to the withdrawal of the licence; this was a key revenue stream for the company, since South America was a closed market and slaves were practically the only thing they were allowed to sell there. Its removal was a spur to war, as was the opportunity to acquire fresh colonies in the Caribbean. The Jenkins incident became the casus belli (stated reason) for the conflict but protecting and improving revenues of the South Sea Company was the underlying cause.

The war began with a British success; the capture of Porto Bello in Panama in 1739 in a surprise attack by just 6 British warships was celebrated throughout Britain and British America. Portobello Road in London, Portobello district in Edinburgh and Porto Bello in Virginia are all named after it.

After that little went right for the British. Small forces and an unfamiliarity with fighting in the tropics led to mounting losses, many from disease. In 1741 they launched a major amphibious attack on Cartagena de Indias in Columbia by 12,000 marines and 15,000 sailors in 54 ships but were bloodily repulsed with 10,000 dead and 6 ships sunk. This is noted in British histories as Britain’s worst ever defeat at sea. In 1742 a force of British American troops from Georgia failed in an attempt to capture St Augustine in Florida – the failure of Royal Navy to prevent the Spanish from re-enforcing the town was a key factor in the Spanish Victory. A Spanish attempt to invade the colony of Georgia was also defeated in the same year. In 1748, a British force ambushed a treasure fleet and its escorts as it left the harbour Havana, Cuba; it defeated the escorts, but the treasure ships got away. This was the last action of the war.

By now the conflict had become merged into the War of the Austrian Succession which had broken out in Europe, so Britain withdrew its forces from the Caribbean and combat operations ceased. The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 formally ended the war, but the issue of the Asiento was not mentioned. This was finally resolved in 1750 with an agreement that Britain would renounce any claim to the Asiento in return for a payment of £100,000 and improved trading rights in South America. This turned out to be to the Company’s advantage; even with an Asiento the Company made surprisingly little money from the slave trade – there was a glut of slaves and the price was low – they made far more from smuggling goods in the slave ships, since Spanish colonies were a closed market for all other goods. Prior to the war the Company had struggled to make a profit; wild expectations of profit growth had pushed up the share price and led to the Financial crash of 1720, known as the “South Sea Bubble”. The ending of its slave trading activities and the opening up of legitimate markets led to a revival in the Company’s fortunes and it finally began to turn a profit and continued to do so until it was wound up in 1853 at the outbreak of the Crimean War.

 

Copyright ©2018 Savereo John

British Battles of the 18th Century – Sea

Battle Year Country Conflict Outcome
Vigo Bay 1701 Spain War of the Spanish Succession Allied Victory
Málaga 1704 Spain War of the Spanish Succession Inconclusive
Cape Passaro 1718 Spain War of the Quadruple Alliance British Victory
Nassau 1720 Bahamas War of the Quadruple Alliance British / French / Dutch Victory
La Guaira 1739 West Indies War of Jenkins’ Ear Spanish Victory
Porto Bello 1739 Panama War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
San Lorenzo el Real Chagres 1740 Panama War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
Cartagena de Indias 1741 Columbia War of Jenkin’s Ear Spanish Victory
Toulon (1744) 1744 France War of the Austrian Succession Inconclusive
Santiago de Cuba (1748) 1748 Cuba War of Jenkin’s Ear Spanish Victory
Havana (1748) 1748 Cuba War of Jenkin’s Ear British Victory
Minorca (1756) 1756 Spain Seven Year’s War Pro-French Victory
Negapatam (1758) 1756 Tamil Nadu Seven Year’s War Inconclusive
Lagos 1759 Portugal Seven Year’s War Pro-British Victory
Pondicherry 1759 Tamil Nadu Seven Year’s War Inconclusive
Quiberon Bay 1759 France Seven Year’s War Pro-British Victory
Valcour Island 1776 New York American Revolutionary War French Victory
Ushant (1778) 1778 France American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
St. Lucia 1778 West Indies American Revolutionary War British Victory
Grenada 1779 West Indies American Revolutionary War French Victory
Cape St. Vincent (1780) 1780 Portugal American Revolutionary War British Victory
Martinique (1780) 1780 West Indies American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
Porto Praya 1781 Cape Verde American Revolutionary War French Victory
Fort Royal 1781 West Indies American Revolutionary War French Victory
Dogger Bank (1781) 1781 North Sea American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
Chesapeake 1781 Virgina Capes American Revolutionary War French Victory
Ushant (1781) 1781 France American Revolutionary War British Victory
Saint Kitts 1782 West Indies American Revolutionary War British Victory
Sadras 1782 Tamil Nadu American Revolutionary War French Victory
Saintes 1782 West Indies American Revolutionary War British Victory
Providien 1782 Sri Lanka American Revolutionary War French Victory
Negapatam (1782) 1782 Tamil Nadu American Revolutionary War Inconclusive
Trincomalee 1782 Sri Lanka American Revolutionary War French Victory
Cuddalore (1783) 1783 Tamil Nadu American Revolutionary War French Victory
Prairial  (Glorious First of June) 1794 France First Napoleonic War British Victory
Cape St Vincent (1797) 1797 Portugal First Napoleonic War British Victory
Camperduin 1797 Netherlands First Napoleonic War British Victory
Nile (Aboukir Bay) 1798 Egypt First Napoleonic War British Victory

18th Century Naval Battles With British Involvement

 

Copyright ©2018 Savereo John

American Civil War Bibliography

Books I have read on the ACW. If you are looking for a good book on the military history of the Civil War, try one these …

Shelby Foote – The Civil War, Vols – 1 – 3 (1958)

Bruce Catton – Ulysses Grant, Vols 1 & 2 (1960)

Philip Karcher – American Civil War Source Book (1992)

Glen Tucker – Chickamauga (1961)

GFR Henderson – Stonewall Jackson (1898)

John Dyer – The Gallant Hood (1950)

Don Congdon – Combat in the Civil War (1967)

Bruce Catton – The American Civil War, Vol 1 : The Coming Fury (1961)

 

Horace Porter – Campaigning with Grant (1897)

Eckenrode and Conrad – James Longstreet (1936)

 

Savereo John 2017

 

Great War Statistics – Casualties

memorial-ww1

Combatant Deaths % Total % Pop
Germany 2,000,000 24.8% 3.0%
Russia 1,700,000 21.1% 1.0%
France 1,358,000 16.8% 3.4%
Austria-Hungary 1,100,000 13.6% 2.3%
Britain (UK Only) 761,000 9.4% 1.7%
Italy 400,000 5.0% 1.1%
Ottoman Empire 375,000 4.7% 1.6%
Britain (Empire) 252,000 3.1% 0.1%
USA 114,000 1.4% 0.1%
Total 8,060,000

1 Total Military Deaths by 1918

Columns –

Deaths

% Total – Percentage of total military deaths

% Pop – Percentage of pre-war population

At Sea / Air Raids 110,000
Belgium 30,000
Roumania 800,000
Germany 813,000
Austria & Serbia 1,000,000
Russia 2,000,000

2 Total Civilian Deaths by 1918

Napoleonic Wars 1790 – 1815 233
Taiping Rebellion 1851 – 1866 3,632
Crimean War 1854 – 1856 1,075
American Civil War 1861 – 1865 518
Prusso-Danish War 1864 22
Prusso-Austrian War 1866 1,125
Franco-Prussian War 1870 – 1871 876
Boer War 1899 – 1902 10
Russo-Japanese War 1904 – 1905 292
Balkan War 1912 – 1913 1,941
Great War 1914 – 1918 5,509

3 Ten Major Wars – Comparison of Losses per Day

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

Great War Statistics – General Military

Military Balance

Military k Navy k Tons People m % Forces
France 3,700 665 39.8 9.3%
Britain 975 2,158 45.7 2.1%
Russia 5,970 271 170.1 3.5%
Japan 800 520 55.1 1.5%
Belgium 216 0 7.6 0.1%
Serbia 200 0 3.0 6.6%
Entente 1st Wave 11,861 3,614 321.3 3.7%
Germany 4,500 952 67.0 6.7%
Austria-Hungary 3,000 222 47.5 6.3%
Ottoman Empire 600 100 23.0 2.6%
Central Powers 8,100 1,274 137.5 5.9%
Italy 1,251 285 35,420 3.5%
USA 140 774 96,500 0.1%
Entente 2nd / 3rd Wave 1,391 1,059 131,920 1.1%

1 – First Wave Combatants – Military Balance in 1914

Columns –

Military k – Size of armed forces in 1,000’s

Navy k tons – Size of Navy by tonnage

People m – Population in millions (home territory only – excludes overseas possessions)

% Forces – Percentage of the population under arms (= Military / Population)

Battleships  / crusiers Cruisers Destroyers Sub’s k tons
Britain + Dominions 59 107 301 65 2,158
France 25 39 83 55 665
Japan 17 34 50 12 520
Russia 4 10 21 11 271
Entente 105 190 455 143 3,614
Germany 36 54 144 28 952
Austria-Hungary 12 13 25 6 222
Ottoman Empire 2 3 8 0 100
Central Powers 50 70 177 34 1,274
USA 31 25 51 30 774
Italy 12 15 36 19 285
Second / Third Wave 43 40 87 49 1,059

2 – Comparative Naval Strengths 1914

Columns –

Battleships / Cruisers – Battleships and Battlecruisers of all types, including pre-Dreadnaught

Cruisers – Types including Light, Armored and Protected

Destroyers

Submarines

k Tons – Tonnage in 1,000’s

Sources for statistics

Savereo John 2017

 

Great War Statistics – U-Boat and Merchant Shipping

U-Boat

Great War - Shipping Losses

1 British and Neutral Merchant Tonnage Sunk (1,000 tons) – by Cause

Britain 7,760
Norway 1,177
France 889
Italy 846
USA 395
Other Countries 1,785
Total 12,852

2 Entente and Neutral Merchant Tonnage Sunk (1,000 tons) – By Country

Germany 187
Turkey 62
Austria-Hungary 15
Total 264

3 Central Powers Merchant Tonnage Sunk (1,000 tons) – By Country

 

Great War - U Boat Losses

4 U-Boat Losses 1914-1918

 

Rank Name 1,000 tons
KK Lothar von Arnauld de la Periere 400
KL Walther Forstmann 380
KK Max Valentiner 300
KL Hans Rose 210
KL Otto Streinbrink 210
KL Waldemar Kophamel 190
KL Walther Schweiger 190
KL Hans von Mellenthin 170
KL Claus Rücker 170
KL Otto Wünsche 160
OL Reinhold Salzwedel 150
OL Wolfgang Steinbauer 140
KL Konrad Gansser 140
KL Robert Moraht 130
KL Willhelm Werner 130
KL Leo Hillebrand 130
KL Otto Schultze 130
KL Rudolf Schneider 130
KL Ernst Hashagen 130
KL Kurt Hartwig 130

5 Top Twenty U-Boat Aces 1914-1918

Sources used for statistics

Savereo John 2017

 

The Battle of Heligoland Bight (1939)

 

wellington and 109

Vickers Wellington and Messerschmidt 109

Battle of Heligoland Bight (18th Dec 1939)

Allied – 22 Vickers Wellington bombers

Axis – 44 Messerschmitt 109 and 110’s

Result – Axis victory

Losses

Allied – 12 bombers shot down, 3 damaged. 57 dead

Axis – 3 fighters shot down, 10 damaged. 2 dead, 2 wounded

German histories note this raid as the most significant air battle of the war, purely for the effect it had on the strategy of both sides.

By December 1939, the war had been in progress for 3 months and was well into the “phoney war” phase. Although the causus belli (stated reason) for the war was the German invasion of Poland; the French and British had assembled a powerful force, but had left it dug in along the German border, whilst the Germans and Russians crushed Poland unmolested. The raid occurred just 10 days after the battle of the River Plate and the scuttling of Graf Spee.

Bombing at the time was restrained by the need to avoid adverse publicity with neutrals, particularly the USA. Attacks on urban areas were to be avoided. This was respected in the western theatre by both sides at this time – but by nobody in the eastern theatre, where the city of Warszawa was heavily bombed and civilian columns on the roads attacked; up 7,000 Polish civilians were killed by bombing during the siege of the city.

The first British air raids on German territory started as soon as war was declared as did the first U-Boat attacks on British shipping. On 3rd Sep, just a few hours after war was declared, 18 Handley Page Hampdens and 9 Vickers Wellingtons took off from RAF Wyton to attack the battleship SMS Admiral Scheer, moored in the Jade Estuary near Willhelmshaven naval base. The target could not be found due to heavy cloud, and the force returned to base. About the same time as they were landing, submarine U30 spotted and torpedoed the Donaldson Atlantic passenger liner SS Athenia without warning, about 70 miles south of Rockall. The liner was 1 day out of Liverpool, en-route to Montreal and had 1,400 passengers on board; 98 passengers and 19 crew were killed. These were the first British, Canadian and American civilians killed in WW2.

The RAF tried again to attack the Admiral Scheer the following day, when 15 Bristol Blenheims returned and found the battleship. Germany had no integrated radar defence at this time and the Bombers found the ship before they were intercepted. Despite this only one bomb hit the ship, but it failed to explode; no significant damage was done. At the same time 9 Vickers Wellingtons attacked shipping in the Elbe Estuary, further along the coast, but again did no damage. 3 Wellingtons and 5 Blenheims were shot down, the first British military losses of WW2.

Sporadic air attacks on shipping in the North Sea continued until Dec when the RAF decided to mount its largest attack to date. The target was any German shipping in Heligoland Bight between Willhelmshaven and Cuxhaven. 22 twin engine  Wellingtons from RAF Milldenhall deployed, each with a crew of 5. The Wellington was adapted to the pre- radar era – it could attack land or sea targets fast and low and with great accuracy; the main danger was from anti-air craft guns, not enemy fighters.

But as a massed attack bomber, outnumbered 2-1 by high performance fighters vectored in by radar – it was hopeless. The flight flew east and was picked up by the newly installed Freya Radar station on Heligoland Island; The flight initially headed for Kiel, but veered south at the last moment and came in from the northeast. Consequently, radar had tracked them for a full hour before reaching the target. Air Defence Command in Hamburg put 100 fighters in the air, the first wave of 44 intercepting the bombers as they reached the target. Within a short time 12 Wellingtons had been shot down and the rest fled badly shot up. No ships were damaged.

For the RAF, an attrition rate of 50% was unsustainable; this added to the realisation that accurate bombing against a defended and radar-enabled target was difficult if not impossible with the technology they had, led them to abandon daylight bombing altogether. RAF bombing activity was light until the Axis offensive in the west in May 1940, when first tactical, then strategic bombing re-appeared, but with a radically different set of objectives to the first tentative attacks.  Britain (and the USA) both understood the notion of “strategic” bombing – attacks directed far behind the lines at economic and industrial targets as opposed to “tactical” bombing – attacks in support of army or navy operations. Add to this the British view that the morale of the enemy population was a legitimate strategic objective, particularly that of war workers and you arrive at the following –

A separate “air front” – a strategic campaign of psychological warfare (nuisance raids and leaflet drops) and night-time bombing of economic targets conducted by larger bombers, with bigger bomb loads in bigger numbers. Accuracy at night was impossible, only wide areas could be targeted. The intention was not to hit just factories, but worker housing, with the stated intent of destroying housing and killing the inhabitants to bring about a collapse in the productive capacity of the enemy society and economy and to force them to withdraw from the war.  This policy was not put into effect earnestly until after the Blitz, in which 30,000 British civilians had been killed in the space of about 9 months. It should also be noted that the tactic of using electronic vectoring at night and a much higher  proportion of incendiaries in the bomb load were both copied by the RAF from Luftwafe tactics during the Blitz.

The German’s saw bombing very differently. To them the primary role of the bomber was tactical – it was there to support the operations of the other two services. They could conceive of tactical objectives behind the lines – attacks on British ports and aerospace industries during the Blitz being two obvious examples. Where the Luftwafe attacked civilian areas in Britain specifically it was usually “Vergeltungswaffen” (revenge weapons) – either the Baedecker raids against historic town centres or the V-weapons program, ie retaliation for Allied attacks on German cities. It wasn’t that Hitler was opposed to killing civilians – it was just that he didn’t think bombing was the way to do it.

Their biggest mistake however was to overestimate the effectiveness of their integrated defence and to inadequately fund not only fighter defence, but bomber development also. This was to have increasingly dire consequences from 1943 onwards as the Allies, by now re-inforced by the Americans could put 1,000 Lancasters and Wellingtons with electronically vectored Mosquitoes as pathfinders into a nightime raid and 1,000 Flying Fortress bombers plus 800 Mustangs and Thunderbolt fighters into a daytime raid.

The British and the American’s believed that strategic bombing could win a war – the Germans never did. As it turned out, the Allies were wrong. Despite repeated raids, the USAAF was never able to seriously dent, for instance, German aerospace industrial capacity. They simply dispersed most of it and moved the rest underground. German aircraft production actually rose and continued to do so until mid 1944 when the outer areas of the German empire were overrun and supply of raw materials dried up. The British (and later American) area bombing also failed to break the morale of the German population; although 350,000 of them had to die and 40% of urban Germany reduced to charred rubble to prove the point.

Copyright ©2017 Savereo John

 

Battles of the First World War – Eastern Front

Eastern Theatre v2

Battles of the First World War – Chronological Order

Name Start Location / 1914 Location Combatants Outcome
Liege 04/08/1914 Belgium

96,000

Central Powers Victory
Mulhouse 07/08/1914 France / Germany

75,000

Central Powers Victory
Haelen 12/08/1914 Belgium

8,800

Entente Victory
Lorraine 14/08/1914 France / Germany

935,000

Central Powers Victory
Agbeluvhoe 15/08/1914 Togo / German Togoland

4,142

Entente Victory
Cer 15/08/1914 Serbia

380,000

Entente Victory
Satlluponen 17/08/1914 Russia / Germany

100,000

Central Powers Victory
Gumbinen 20/08/1914 Russia / Germany

340,000

Entente Victory
Namur 20/08/1914 Belgium

142,000

Central Powers Victory
Ardennes Forest 21/08/1914 France

741,000

Central Powers Victory
Charleroi (First Sambre) 21/08/1914 Belgium

495,000

Central Powers Victory
Chra 22/08/1914 Togo / German Togoland

958

Entente Victory
Mons 23/08/1914 Belgium

240,000

Central Powers Victory
Kraśnik 23/08/1914 Poland / Russia

400,000

Central Powers Victory
Maubeuge 24/08/1914 France

95,000

Central Powers Victory
Tepe 25/08/1914 Cameroon / German Kamerun

1,000

Entente Victory
Le Cateau 26/08/1914 France

120,000

Central Powers Victory
Komarów 26/08/1914 Poland / Russia

400,000

Central Powers Victory
Gnila Lipa 26/08/1914 Poland / Russia

900,000

Entente Victory
Mora 26/08/1914 Cameroon / German Kamerun

654

Entente Victory
Tannenberg 26/08/1914 Poland / Germany

380,000

Central Powers Victory
Tsingtao 27/08/1914 China

28,150

Entente Victory
Guise 29/08/1914 France

200,000

Entente Victory
First Garua 29/08/1914 Cameroon / German Kamerun

900

Central Powers Victory
Rawa 02/09/1914 Ukraine / Hungary

300,000

Entente Victory
Grand Couronné 04/09/1914 France

575,000

Entente Victory
First Marne 05/09/1914 France

2,556,000

Entente Victory
Drina 06/09/1914 Serbia

150,000

Draw
Nsanakong 06/09/1914 Cameroon / German Kamerun

1,000

Central Powers Victory
First Masurian Lakes 07/09/1914 Poland / Germany

705,000

Central Powers Victory
Bita Paka 11/09/1914 New Britain / German New Guinea

800

Entente Victory
First Aisne 13/09/1914 France

600,000

Draw
Ukoko 21/09/1914 Gabon / German Kamerun

500

Entente Victory
First Picardy 22/09/1914 France

200,000

Draw
Przemyśl 24/09/1914 Poland / Russia

440,000

Entente Victory
First Albert 25/09/1914 France

200,000

Draw
Sandfontein 26/09/1914 South Africa

4,820

Central Powers Victory
Antwerp 28/09/1914 Belgium

216,300

Central Powers Victory
Warsaw 29/09/1914 Poland / Russia

750,000

Entente Victory
First Arras 01/10/1914 France

190,000

Entente Victory
La Bassée 10/10/1914 France

150,000

Draw
Second Messines 12/10/1914 Belgium

unknown

Draw
Armentières 13/10/1914 France

115,000

Draw
Yser River 16/10/1914 Belgium

280,000

Entente Victory
First Ypres 19/10/1914 Belgium

600,000

Entente Victory
Tanga 03/11/1914 Tanzania / German East Africa

9,000

Central Powers Victory
Basra 11/11/1914 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

15,000

Entente Victory
Łódź 11/11/1914 Poland / Russia

750,000

Draw
Kolubara 16/11/1914 Serbia

880,000

Entente Victory
Limanowa 01/12/1914 Poland / Hungary

215,000

Draw
Qurna 03/12/1914 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

3,100

Entente Victory
First Artois 17/12/1914 France

300,000

Draw
Naulila 18/12/1914 Angola / Portuguese Angola

3,000

Central Powers Victory
Givenchy 18/12/1914 France

135,000

Entente Victory
First Champagne 20/12/1914 France

350,000

Draw
Sarikamish 22/12/1914 Turkey / Ottoman Empire

218,000

Entente Victory
Ardahan 25/12/1914 Turkey / Ottoman Empire

135,000

Entente Victory
Suez Canal 26/01/1915 Egypt

50,000

Entente Victory
Kakamas 04/02/1915 South Africa

12,000

Entente Victory
Second Masurian Lakes 07/02/1915 Poland / Germany

320,000

Central Powers Victory
Neuve Chapelle 10/03/1915 France

90,000

Entente Victory
Shaiba 12/04/1915 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

24,156

Entente Victory
Second Ypres 21/04/1915 Belgium

220,000

Draw
Gallipolli 25/04/1915 Turkey / Ottoman Empire

883,000

Central Powers Victory
Gurin 29/04/1915 Nigeria / British Nigeria

442

Entente Victory
Second Artois 09/05/1915 France

570,000

Draw
Second Garua 31/05/1915 Cameroon / German Kamerun

1,500

Entente Victory
First Isonzo 01/06/1915 Italy / Austria

340,000

Central Powers Victory
Nasiriyeh 27/06/1915 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

10,000

Entente Victory
Ngaundere 29/06/1915 Cameroon / German Kamerun

400

Entente Victory
Bitlis 01/07/1915 Turkey / Ottoman Empire

200,000

Entente Victory
Otavi 01/07/1915 Namibia / German Southwest Africa

4,500

Entente Victory
Second Isonzo 18/07/1915 Italy / Austria

328,000

Draw
Loos 25/09/1915 France

150,000

Draw
Second Champagne 25/09/1915 France

670,000

Central Powers Victory
Third Artois 25/09/1915 France

405,000

Draw
Es-Sinn 28/09/1915 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

25,500

Entente Victory
Ovche Pole 14/10/1915 Serbia

145,000

Central Powers Victory
Morava 14/10/1915 Serbia

286,000

Central Powers Victory
Krivolak 17/10/1915 Serbia / Macedonia

145,000

Central Powers Victory
Third Isonzo 18/10/1915 Italy / Austria

520,000

Draw
Banjo 04/11/1915 Cameroon / German Kamerun

750

Entente Victory
Fourth Isonzo 10/11/1915 Italy / Austria

530,000

Draw
Kosovo 10/11/1915 Serbia

230,000

Central Powers Victory
Ctesiphon 22/11/1915 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

29,000

Draw
Kosturino 06/12/1915 Serbia / Macedonia

105,000

Central Powers Victory
Kut-Al-Amara 07/12/1915 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

74,000

Central Powers Victory
Bolimow 31/12/1915 Poland / Russia

200,000

Draw
Mojkovac 06/01/1916 Montenegro

36,500

Entente Victory
Sheikh Sa’ad 06/01/1916 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

23,330

Entente Victory
Koprukoy 10/01/1916 Turkey / Ottoman Empire

140,000

Entente Victory
Wadi 13/01/1916 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

41,500

Central Powers Victory
First Hanna 21/01/1916 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

40,000

Central Powers Victory
Verdun 21/02/1916 France

2,390,000

Entente Victory
Dujaila 08/03/1916 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

30,159

Central Powers Victory
Fifth Isonzo 09/03/1916 Italy / Austria

506,000

Draw
Lake Naroch 18/03/1916 Belarus / Russia

530,000

Central Powers Victory
Asiago 15/05/1916 Italy

472,000

Draw
Khanaqin 01/06/1916 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

52,500

Entente Victory
Lutsk 04/06/1916 Ukraine / Russia

350,000

Entente Victory
Somme 01/07/1916 France

3,000,000

Entente Victory
Erzincan 02/07/1916 Turkey / Ottoman Empire

200,000

Entente Victory
Kostiuchnówka 04/07/1916 Ukraine / Russia

20,300

Entente Victory
Romani 03/08/1916 Egypt

30,000

Entente Victory
Sixth Isonzo 06/08/1916 Italy / Austria

465,000

Entente Victory
Turtucaia 02/09/1916 Bulgaria / Romania

94,000

Central Powers Victory
Malka Nidzhe 12/09/1916 Macedonia

23,000

Entente Victory
Kaymakchalan 12/09/1916 Macedonia

60,000

Entente Victory
Seventh Isonzo 14/09/1916 Italy / Austria

390,000

Draw
Dobro Pole 15/09/1916 Macedonia

48,100

Entente Victory
First Cobadin 17/09/1916 Romania

290,000

Entente Victory
Eighth Isonzo 10/10/1916 Italy / Austria

510,000

Draw
Second Cobadin 19/10/1916 Romania

350,000

Central Powers Victory
Ninth Isonzo 31/10/1916 Italy / Austria

395,000

Entente Victory
Arges 01/12/1916 Romania

325,000

Central Powers Victory
Second Kut 23/02/1917 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

67,000

Entente Victory
Samarrah 13/03/1917 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

70,000

Entente Victory
First Gaza 26/03/1917 Gaza / Ottoman Empire

26,000

Central Powers Victory
Second Arras 09/04/1917 France

630,000

Entente Victory
Second Asine 16/04/1917 France

1,365,000

Central Powers Victory
Second Gaza 17/04/1917 Gaza / Ottoman Empire

45,000

Central Powers Victory
Tenth Isonzo 10/05/1917 Italy / Austria

600,000

Entente Victory
Second Messines 07/06/1917 Belgium

342,000

Entente Victory
Aqaba 06/07/1917 Jordon / Ottoman Empire

5,750

Entente Victory
Mărăşti 22/07/1917 Romania / Hungary

179,000

Entente Victory
Passchendaele (Third Ypres) 31/07/1917 Belgium

2,085,000

Draw
Mărășești 06/08/1917 Romania

463,000

Central Powers Victory
Eleventh Isonzo 18/08/1917 Italy / Austria

850,000

Draw
Jugla 01/09/1917 Latvia / Russia

252,000

Central Powers Victory
Ramadi 28/09/1917 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

23,500

Entente Victory
Caporetto (Twelfth Isonzo) 24/10/1917 Italy

750,000

Central Powers Victory
Tikrit 05/11/1917 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

45,000

Entente Victory
Mughar Ridge 13/11/1917 Israel / Ottoman Empire

50,000

Entente Victory
Cambrai 20/11/1917 France

270,000

Draw
Third Gaza 01/12/1917 Gaza / Ottoman Empire

14,500

Central Powers Victory
Beersheba 31/12/1917 Israel / Ottoman Empire

19,400

Entente Victory
Lys (Fourth Ypres) 07/04/1918 Belgium

825,000

Central Powers Victory
Third Asine 27/05/1918 France

450,000

Draw
Cantigny 28/05/1918 France

9,000

Entente Victory
Belleau Wood 01/06/1918 France

145,000

Entente Victory
Piave 15/06/1918 Italy

1,725,000

Entente Victory
Le Hamel 04/07/1918 France

12,600

Entente Victory
Second Marne 15/07/1918 France

1,570,000

Entente Victory
Amiens 08/08/1918 France

690,000

Entente Victory
Baku 26/08/1918 Azerbaijan / Russia

20,500

Central Powers Victory
Havrincourt 12/09/1918 France

105,000

Entente Victory
Ephey 18/09/1918 France

270,000

Entente Victory
Fifth Ypres 28/09/1918 Belgium

660,000

Entente Victory
Sharqat 23/10/1918 Iraq / Ottoman Empire

60,000

Entente Victory
Vittorio Vento 24/10/1918 Italy

1,770,000

Entente Victory
Second Sambre 04/11/1918 Belgium

620,000

Entente Victory